History of Paper

Paper took clay tablet’s place at first with the aim of writing. Although it was used in a similar purpose and it gave its name to the paper in western languages, the papyrus cannot be evaluated as paper from technical aspect. Because the formation of papyrus does not include the process of plant fiber decomposing and transforming the fibers obtained into the paper sheet again. In this sense, the first paper manufacturing was in AD 105, in China and spread to Japan, and from there to Europe through Central Asia and Middle East. Paper manufacturing in Europe was realized in 1150 in Spain, in 1189 in France, in 1320 in Germany and in 1494 in Britain. On the other hand, paper crossed the Atlantic Ocean in 1690 and the first manufacturing in Canada was in 1803.

The first problem in paper manufacturing was the fibrillation of the pulp. In the beginning, this problem was solved by rubbing the fibers between the Stones, then by mortar and pestles. Dutch first used a tool made up of a kind of heckler called ‘’Kapperij’’ and many ascending and descending hammers. Then the Dutch found hollender in 1660 and they developed it between 1660 and 1673. Hollender is the ancestor of modern refiners and has been used widely until recently. The industrial and chemical revolutions in the 18th century showed the resulting impact also on the paper industry. Essones and L.N.Robert working in paper business in 1798 found the Fourdrinier paper machine operating continuously and mechanically. In 1818 Canson found the suction box at the bottom of the infinite sieve. A German scholar named Fredrich G.Keller took out patent of a machine that makes paper from grained wood fibers, for the first time in 1840. The paper which was inevitable for idea generation and communication had been made by hand till 1804. As a result of the industrial revolution, the paper need was increased and scraps were not enough anymore as raw material. Thus, new fiber sources was began to be sought. The paper making industrially from the wood was begun in 1870-1880.

The Turks settled in Anatolia with the Malazgirt war is known for establishing Paper Mills. During the Crusades, the French and Italians took this paper business to their countries by learning it from Turks. The historical Paper Mill founded in Istanbul in 1453, in the Kağıthane village was operated intermittently during Selim III’s reign. A Paper Mill was founded in Bursa during Beyazıt II’s reign and was operated from 1486 till 1520. Yalakabad Paper Mill was founded in Elmalık village of Yalova in 1476 due to the increasing paper need after the establishment of printing house and it was operated wit success till the half of the 19th century. A new Paper Mill was founded in Hünkar İskelesi near Beykoz in 1803 and this Paper Mill was much improved during Mahmut II’s reign. The ‘’Istanbul ‘’ watermark, the date of establishment and the business year was taken place in the papers made here. The Ottoman Government decided to establish a paper mill in İzmit after the mechanization of paper manufacturing in Europe, but it was not finalized. The first Paper Mill manufacturing paper with machine in the Ottoman period, was established in İzmir, Halkapınar district in 1886 by private enterprise, this mill operating with steam engine and used scraps as raw material was closed after 6 months with reason of capitulations. The government spokesman Osman Bey eastablished Hamidiye Paper Mill in 1887, this mill with four machines had worked until 1915. The foundation of the first paper and cardboard factory of which studies and projects was prepared by paper engineer Mehmet Ali Kağıtçı during Republican period was laid down in 1934 in İzmit. The construction and assembly was continued for 20 months and the first paper was manufactured on 18 April 1936. The name of this first paper mill in 1934 was Sümerbank Selüloz Sanayi Müessesesi and respectively was Türkiye Selüloz ve Kağıt Fabrikaları İşletmesi (SEKA) in 1955.